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Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 Statistics
Diabetes Frequency, Complications, and Mortality Statistics


National Diabetes Statistics From the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse

National Estimates on Diabetes

General Information

National Estimates on Diabetes
How estimates were derived

Total Prevalence of Diabetes in the United States, All Ages, 2005

Total: 20.8 million people—7.0 percent of the population—have diabetes.

Diagnosed: 14.6 million people

Undiagnosed: 6.2 million people

   

Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes in People Aged 20 Years or Younger, United States, 2005

About 176,500 people aged 20 years or younger have diabetes. This group represents 0.22 percent of all people in this age group.

About one in every 400 to 600 children and adolescents has type 1 diabetes.

Although type 2 diabetes can occur among youth, the nationally representative data that would be needed to monitor diabetes trends in youth by type are not available. Clinically based reports and regional studies suggest that type 2 diabetes, although still rare, is being diagnosed more frequently in children and adolescents, particularly in American Indians, African Americans, and Hispanic/Latino Americans.

Note:

CDC’s National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the only source of national data on diabetes in children and adolescents. Because diabetes is relatively rare in this age group and the NHIS sample size is small, prevalence estimates for diabetes in youth vary considerably from year to year, to reduce this variability, prevalence estimates in this report are based on 5 years of NHIS data instead of 3, resulting in a lower estimate of diabetes in youth than the estimate for 2003. CDC and the National Institutes of Health are funding a 5-year study, SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth, which is examining the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in youth in six geographical regions of the United States. When completed, the SEARCH study will provide more reliable estimates of diabetes in youth.



   

Total Prevalence of Diabetes Among People Aged 20 Years or Older, United States, 2005

Age 20 years or older: 20.6 million; 9.6 percent of all people in this age group have diabetes.

Age 60 years or older: 10.3 million; 20.9 percent of all people in this age group have diabetes.

Men: 10.9 million; 10.5 percent of all men aged 20 years or older have diabetes.

Women: 9.7 million; 8.8 percent of all women aged 20 years or older have diabetes.

Estimated total prevalence of diabetes in people aged 20 years or older, by age group-United States, 2005

Detailed information about this graph is available.

   

Total Prevalence of Diabetes by Race/Ethnicity Among People Aged 20 Years or Older, United States, 2005

Non-Hispanic whites: 13.1 million; 8.7 percent of all non-Hispanic whites aged 20 years or older have diabetes.

Non-Hispanic blacks: 3.2 million; 13.3 percent of all non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 years or older have diabetes. After adjusting for population age differences, non-Hispanic blacks are 1.8 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites of similar age.

Hispanic/Latino Americans: After adjusting for population age differences, Mexican Americans, the largest Hispanic/Latino subgroup, are 1.7 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites. If the prevalence of diabetes among Mexican Americans was applied to the total Hispanic/Latino population, about 2.5 million (9.5 percent) Hispanic/Latino Americans aged 20 years or older would have diabetes. Sufficient data are not available to derive estimates of the total prevalence of diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes) for other Hispanic/Latino groups. However, residents of Puerto Rico are 1.8 times as likely to have diagnosed diabetes as non-Hispanic whites in the United Sates.

American Indians and Alaska Natives who receive care from the Indian Health Service (IHS): 99,500; 12.8 percent of American Indians and Alaska Natives aged 20 years or older who received care from the Indian Health Service (IHS) in 2003 had diagnosed diabetes. Applying the rate of undiagnosed diabetes in the total U.S. population to the American Indians and Alaska Natives who receive care from IHS gives an estimate of 118,000 (15.1 percent) American Indians and Alaska Natives aged 20 years or older with diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes). After adjusting for population age differences, the total prevalence of diabetes in this group is lowest among Alaska Natives (8.1 percent) and highest among American Indians in the southern United States (26.7 percent) and in southern Arizona (27.6 percent). Taking into account population age differences, American Indians and Alaska Natives are 2.2 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites.

Asian Americans and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders: The total prevalence of diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes) is not available for Asian Americans or Pacific Islanders. In Hawaii, however, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders aged 20 years or older are more than 2 times as likely to have diagnosed diabetes as whites after adjusting for population age differences. Similarly in California, Asians were 1.5 times as likely to have diagnosed diabetes as non-Hispanic whites. Other groups within these populations also have increased risk for diabetes.

Estimated age-adjusted total prevalence of diabetes in people aged 20 years or older, by race/ethnicity-United States, 2005

Detailed information about this graph is available.

   

Incidence of Diabetes, United States, 2005

1.5 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in people aged 20 years or older in 2005.

Estimated number of new cases of diagnosed diabetes in people aged 20 years or older, by age group-United States, 2005

Detailed information about this graph is available.

   

Deaths Among People with Diabetes, United States, 2002

  • Diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death listed on U.S. death certificates in 2002. This ranking is based on the 73,249 death certificates in which diabetes was listed as the underlying cause of death. According to death certificate reports, diabetes contributed to a total of 224,092 deaths.

  • Diabetes is likely to be underreported as a cause of death. Studies have found that only about 35 to 40 percent of decedents with diabetes have diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate and only about 10 to15 percent had it listed as the underlying cause of death.

  • Overall, the risk for death among people with diabetes is about twice that of people without diabetes of similar age.

   

Complications of Diabetes in the United States

Heart disease and stroke

  • Heart disease and stroke account for about 65 percent of deaths in people with diabetes.

  • Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes.

  • The risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher among people with diabetes.

High blood pressure

  • About 73 percent of adults with diabetes have blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg or use prescription medications for hypertension.

Blindness

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20 to 74 years.

  • Diabetic retinopathy causes 12,000 to 24,000 new cases of blindness each year.

Kidney disease

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for 44 percent of new cases in 2002.

  • In 2002 in the United Sates and Puerto Rico, 44,400 people with diabetes began treatment for end-stage kidney disease.

  • In 2002 in the United States and Puerto Rico,153,730 people with end-stage kidney disease due to diabetes were living on chronic dialysis or with a kidney transplant.

Nervous system disease

  • About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage. The results of such damage include impaired sensation or pain in the feet or hands, slowed digestion of food in the stomach, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other nerve problems.

  • Almost 30 percent of people with diabetes aged 40 years or older have impaired sensation in the feet (i.e., at least one area that lacks feeling).

  • Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are a major contributing cause of lower-extremity amputations.

Amputations

  • More than 60 percent of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations occur among people with diabetes.

  • In 2002, about 82,000 nontraumatic lower-limb amputations were performed in people with diabetes.

Dental disease

  • Periodontal (gum) disease is more common in people with diabetes. Among young adults, those with diabetes have about twice the risk of those without diabetes.

  • Almost one-third of people with diabetes have severe periodontal diseases with loss of attachment of the gums to the teeth measuring 5 millimeters or more.

Complications of pregnancy

  • Poorly controlled diabetes before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause major birth defects in 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies and spontaneous abortions in 15 to 20 percent of pregnancies.

  • Poorly controlled diabetes during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in excessively large babies, posing a risk to both mother and child.

Other complications

  • Uncontrolled diabetes often leads to biochemical imbalances that can cause acute life-threatening events, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar (nonketotic) coma.

  • People with diabetes are more susceptible to many other illnesses and, once they acquire these illnesses, often have worse prognoses. For example, they are more likely to die with pneumonia or influenza than people who do not have diabetes.

   

Prevention of Diabetes Complications

Diabetes can affect many parts of the body and can lead to serious complications such as blindness, kidney damage, and lower-limb amputations. Working together, people with diabetes and their health care providers can reduce the occurrence of these and other diabetes complications by controlling the levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids and by receiving other preventive care practices in a timely manner.

Glucose control

  • Studies in the United States and abroad have found that improved glycemic control benefits people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In general, every percentage point drop in A1C blood test results (e.g., from 8 to 7 percent) reduces the risk of microvascular complications (eye, kidney, and nerve disease) is reduced by 40 percent.

Blood pressure control

  • Blood pressure control reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke) among persons with diabetes by 33 to 50 percent, and the risk of microvascular complications (eye, kidney, and nerve disease) by about 33 percent.

  • In general, for every 10 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure, the risk for any complication related to diabetes is reduced by 12 percent.

Control of blood lipids

  • Improved control of cholesterol or blood lipids (for example, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides) can reduce cardiovascular complications by 20 to 50 percent.

Preventive care practices for eyes, kidneys, and feet

  • Detecting and treating diabetic eye disease with laser therapy can reduce the development of severe vision loss by an estimated 50 to 60 percent.

  • Comprehensive foot care programs can reduce amputation rates by 45 to 85 percent.

  • Detecting and treating early diabetic kidney disease by lowering blood pressure can reduce the decline in kidney function by 30 to 70 percent. Treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are more effective in reducing the decline in kidney function than other blood pressure-lowering drugs.

   

Cost of diabetes in the United States, 2002

Total (direct and indirect): $132 billion

Direct medical costs: $92 billion

Indirect costs: $40 billion (disability, work loss, premature mortality)

These data are based on a study conducted by the Lewin Group, Inc., for the American Diabetes Association and are 2002 estimates of both the direct costs (cost of medical care and services) and indirect costs (costs of short-term and permanent disability and of premature death) attributable to diabetes. This study uses a specific cost-of-disease methodology to estimate the health care costs that are due to diabetes.

   

Treating Diabetes

  • To survive, people with type 1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injections or a pump.

  • Many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose by following a healthy meal plan and exercise program, losing excess weight, and taking oral medication.

  • Many people with diabetes also need to take medications to control their cholesterol and blood pressure.

  • Diabetes self-management education (DMSE) is an integral component of medical care.

  • Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, 16 percent take insulin only, 12 percent take both insulin and oral medication, 57 percent take oral medication only, and 15 percent do not take either insulin or oral medications.
Treatment with insulin or oral medications among adults with diagnosed diabetes-United States, 2001–2003

Detailed information about this graph is available.

   

Pre-diabetes: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose

  • Prediabetes is a condition that raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. People with prediabetes have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

  • People with pre-diabetes have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Some people have both IFG and IGT.

  • IFG is a condition in which the fasting blood glucose level is 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) after an overnight fast. The level is higher than normal but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

  • IGT is a condition in which the blood glucose level is 140 to 199 mg/dL after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. This level is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

  • In a cross-section sample of U.S. adults aged 40 to 74 years (tested from 1988 to 1994), 33.8 percent had IFG, 15.4 percent had IGT, and 40.1 percent had pre-diabetes (IGT or IFG or both). Applying these percentages to the entire U.S. population in 2000, an estimated 35 million adults aged 40 to 74 years had IFG, 16 million had IGT, and 41 million had pre-diabetes (there is overlap between the IFG and IGT groups).

  • Progression to diabetes among those with pre-diabetes is not inevitable. Studies have shown that people with pre-diabetes who lose weight and increase their physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes and even return their blood glucose levels to normal.

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    Page Updated 05/16/2006