Islets of Hope for persons with diabetes

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Article by Lahle Wolfe

Sources
Indiana State U - Types of diabetes mellitus

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation


Links to Diabetes Information and Support

Diabetes Care

Complications of Diabetes

Disorders Associated with Diabetes

General Diabetes Information
Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention

Lifestyle
(diet, exercise, sports, stress management)

Mental Health

Metabolic Disorders

Pregnancy (also, see gestational diabetes)

Problems Associated with Diabetes

Resources

Treatment & Treatment Devices

Alternative & Complementary Treatment

Islets of Hope Discussion Support Lists

 

Diabetes Medical Library                                     main "Diabetes Information" page
Diabetes Information and Statistics

General information about Juvenile Diabetes
Note:  The terms Juvenile diabetes, childhood diabetes, and insulin dependent diabetes are generally considered outdated.
Juvenile diabetes is more commonly referred to now as simply "type 1 diabetes."


About Juvenile Diabetes
See "
Type 1 Diabetes" for complete information.

Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can occur in adults as well. When type 1 diabetes occurs after age 25, it may be diagnosed as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).  Another form of diabetes is maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY).  This form used to be considered a third form of type 2 diabetes, however, it is now generally classified under "other specific types of diabetes."

Type 1 diabetes may also occur as a secondary condition as a result of damage to the pancreas from another disease, or from physical trauma to the pancreas, from another disease, or from surgical removal of the organ). Hemochromatosis and cystic fibrosis are two examples of diseases that can cause secondary type 1 diabetes.

Most often, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's own immune system attacks the beta cells either completely destroying them or damaging them sufficiently to reduce insulin production. This autoimmune response may be triggered by reaction to an illness (several viruses are suspected triggers for type 1 diabetes onset). A subtype of type 1 diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is identifiable by the presence of antibodies against beta cells.  This type of diabetes develops slowly and typically onsets in adulthood (over age 35 or 40, but perhaps as young as 25 and older) so it is initially often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes.  

In juvenile type 1 diabetes onset is usually rapid, occurring over days or weeks.   A small percentage of type 1 patients are diagnosed with yet another form of diabetes, a hereditary condition, called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY).  There are at least 5 known forms of MODY.

Some poisons (e.g. certain rat poisons) work by selectively destroying certain types of cells, including pancreatic beta cells, thus producing "artificial" type 1 diabetes. Other pancreatic problems including trauma, pancreatitis or tumors (either malignant or benign) can also lead to loss of insulin production.


Treatment of Type 1 Juvenile Diabetes
see "Type 1 Treatment"

Currently, type 1 is treated with insulin injections, lifestyle adjustments, and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using blood test kits. Insulin delivery is also available by an insulin pump, which allows the infusion of insulin 24 hours a day at preset levels, and the ability to program push doses (bolus) of insulin as needed at meal times. The treatment is for life -- there is no cure for diabetes -- and once you require insulin, you will need to inject it daily to live.

Experimental replacement of beta cells (by transplant) is being investigated in several research programs and may become clinically available in the future. For more on managing the disease, see Diabetes Management.

About 5-10% of all persons with diabetes have type 1.

   

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Page Updated 09/06/2006